Research Base

All research & content used to create our Program & resources, alphabetised by topic.



Anderson, G., Vaillancourt, C., Maes, M., & Reiter, R. J. (2016). Breast feeding and melatonin: Implications for improving perinatal health. Journal of Breastfeeding Biology, 1(1), 8-20.


Circadian Rhythm & biological sleep factors:

Deboer, T. (2018). Sleep homeostasis and the circadian clock: Do the circadian pacemaker and the sleep homeostat influence each other’s functioning?. Neurobiology of Sleep and  Circadian Rhythms, 5, 68-77.


De Weerth, C., Zijl, R. H., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2003). Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy. Early Human Development, 73(1-2), 39-52.


Dong, L., Gumport, N. B., Martinez, A. J., & Harvey, A. G. (2019). Is improving sleep and circadian problems in adolescence a pathway to improved health? A mediation analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(9), 757.


Joseph, D., Chong, N. W., Shanks, M. E., Rosato, E., Taub, N. A., Petersen, S. A., … & Wailoo, M. (2015). Getting rhythm: how do babies do it?. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 100(1), F50-F54.


Yates, J. (2018). PERSPECTIVE: The Long-Term Effects of Light Exposure on Establishment of Newborn Circadian Rhythm. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 14(10), 1829-1830.


Longitudinal comparison of results of differing approaches to infant sleep:


Price, A. M., Wake, M., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Hiscock, H. (2012). Outcomes at six years of age for children with infant sleep problems: longitudinal community-based study. Sleep Medicine, 13(8), 991-998.

Co sleeping, bedsharing & safe sleep arrangements:


Ball, H. L. (2003). Breastfeeding, bed‐sharing, and infant sleep. Birth, 30(3), 181-188.


Barry, E. S. (2019). Co-sleeping as a proximal context for infant development: The importance of physical touch. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, 101385.


McKenna J, McDada T (2005). Why babies should never sleep alone: A review of the co-sleeping controversy in relation to SIDS, bed sharing and breast feeding. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 6: 2.


Growth & development:


Bayley, N. 2006. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. 3rd ed. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.


Berk, L. (2007). Development Through the Lifespan (4th ed.) (pp 137). Pearson Education.


Mangione, P. L. (Ed.). (2012). Infant/toddler caregiving: A guide to cognitive development and learning (2nd ed.). Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.


Independent play & exploration in early life:


Fiore, L. B. (2018). Grit, Resilience, and Motivation in Early Childhood: Practical Takeaways for Teachers. Routledge.


Gerber, M., & Johnson, A. (1998). Your Self-Confident Baby: How to Encourage Your Child’s Natural Abilities from the Very Start. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Professional, Reference and Trade Group, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012.


Yogman, M., Garner, A., Hutchinson, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2018). The Power of Play: A Pediatric Role in Enhancing Development in Young Children. Pediatrics, 142(3), e20182058.


Infant sign language/ baby keyword signing:


Acredolo, L. P., & Goodwyn, S.W. (July 2000). The long-term impact of symbolic gesturing during infancy on IQ at age 8. Paper presented at the meetings of the International Society for Infant Studies, Brighton, UK.

Goodwyn, S.W., Acredolo, L. P. & Brown, C. (2000). Impact of Symbolic Gesturing on Early Language Development. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 81-103.


Thompson, R. H., Cotnoir-Bichelman, N. M., McKerchar, P. M., Tate, T. L., & Dancho, K. A. (2007). Enhancing early communication through infant sign training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 15–23.


Lifestyle impacts on sleep & health:


Hallgren, M., Herring, M. P., Owen, N., Dunstan, D., Ekblom, Ö., Helgadottir, B., … & Forsell, Y. (2016). Exercise, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in the treatment of depression: broadening the scientific perspectives and clinical opportunities. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 36.


Kitsaras, G., Goodwin, M., Allan, J., & Pretty, I. A. (2021). Defining and measuring bedtime routines in families with young children—A DELPHI process for reaching wider consensus. PLOS ONE, 16(2), e0247490.


Kohyama J. (2007). Early rising children are more active than late risers. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 3(6), 959–963.


Mindell, J. A., & Williamson, A. A. (2018). Benefits of a bedtime routine in young children: Sleep, development, and beyond. Sleep medicine reviews, 40, 93-108.


Owen, N., Sparling, P. B., Healy, G. N., Dunstan, D. W., & Matthews, C. E. (2010). Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(12), 1138–1141.


Singh, N. A., Clements, K. M., & Fiatarone, M. A. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of the effect of exercise on sleep. Sleep, 20(2), 95-101.


Taylor, D. J., & Roane, B. M. (2010). Treatment of insomnia in adults and children: a practice‐friendly review of research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(11), 1137-1147.


The Salk Institute for Biological Studies. (2018). Why screen time can disrupt sleep?


Mental health:


Atif, N., Lovell, K., & Rahman, A. (2015, August). Maternal mental health: The missing “m” in the global maternal and child health agenda. Seminars in Perinatology (Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 345-352). WB Saunders.


Alderdice, F., McNeill, J., & Lynn, F. (2013). A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to improve maternal mental health and well-being. Midwifery, 29(4), 389-399.


Barkin, J. L., & Wisner, K. L. (2013). The role of maternal self-care in new motherhood. Midwifery, 29(9), 1050-1055.


Braiker, H. B. (1987). The Type E woman: How to Overcome the Stress of Being Everything to Everybody. Signet.


Forbes, L. K., Lamar, M. R., & Bornstein, R. S. (2020). Working Mothers’ Experiences in an Intensive Mothering Culture: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 1-25.


Hairston, I. S., Solnik-Menilo, T., Deviri, D., & Handelzalts, J. E. (2016). Maternal depressed mood moderates the impact of infant sleep on mother–infant bonding. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 19(6), 1029-1039.


Harries, V., & Brown, A. (2017). The association between use of infant parenting books that promote strict routines, and maternal depression, self-efficacy, and parenting confidence. Early Child Development & Care.


Holowaychuk, M. K. (2018). Setting boundaries to protect personal time. Veterinary Team Brief, 6(6), 13-17.


Xu, F., Li, Z., Binns, C., Bonello, M., Austin, M. P., & Sullivan, E. (2014). Does infant feeding method impact on maternal mental health?. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9(4), 215-221.


Mindfulness, meditation & sleep:


Black, D. S., O’Reilly, G. A., Olmstead, R., Breen, E. C., & Irwin, M. R. (2015). Mindfulness, meditation and improvement in sleep quality and daytime impairment among older adults with sleep disturbances: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA internal medicine, 175(4), 494-501.


Gong, H., Ni, C. X., Liu,       Y. Z., Zhang, Y., Su, W. J., Lian, Y. J., … & Jiang, C. L. (2016). Mindfulness meditation for insomnia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 89, 1-6.


Newborn Period/ Fourth Trimester:


Cho, E. S., Kim, S. J., Kwon, M. S., Cho, H., Kim, E. H., Jun, E. M., & Lee, S. (2016). The effects of kangaroo care in the neonatal intensive care unit on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal–infant attachment, and maternal stress. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 31(4), 430-438.


Karp, H. (2004). The “fourth trimester”. Contemporary Pediatrics, 21(2), 94-104.


Tully, K. P., Stuebe, A. M., & Verbiest, S. B. (2017). The fourth trimester: a critical transition period with unmet maternal health needs. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 217(1), 37-41.


‘Normal’ sleep patterns:


Barry, E. S. (2020). What Is “Normal” Infant Sleep? Why We Still Do Not Know. Psychological Reports, 0033294120909447. Chicago


Dickens, V. (2013). Breastfeeding and infant sleep patterns: an Australian population study. Midirs Midwifery Digest, 23(3), 386-387.


Galland, B. C., Taylor, B. J., Elder, D. E., & Herbison, P. (2012). Normal sleep patterns in infants and children: a systematic review of observational studies. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(3), 213-222.


Grandner, M. A. (2012). Sleep duration across the lifespan: implications for health. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(3), 199.


Henderson, J. M., France, K. G., Owens, J. L., & Blampied, N. M. (2010). Sleeping through the night: the consolidation of self-regulated sleep across the first year of life. Pediatrics, 126(5), e1081-e1087.


Hysing M, Harvey AG, Torgerson L, Ystrom E, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Sivertsen B. (2014). Trajectories and predictors of nocturnal awakenings and sleep duration in infants.  Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics; 35: 309-16.


Kanack, M., Nakra, N., Ahmad, I., & Vyas, R. M. (2020). What Is Normal Newborn Sleep? A Characterization of Sleep Patterns in Neonates With and Without Airway Obstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery–Global Open, 8(9S), 53-54.


Magee, C. A., Gordon, R., & Caputi, P. (2014). Distinct developmental trends in sleep duration during early childhood. Pediatrics, 133(6), e1561-e1567.


Middlemiss, W., Yaure, R., & Huey, E. L. (2015). Translating research‐based knowledge about infant sleep into practice. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 27(6), 328-337.


Mindell, J. A., Leichman, E. S., Composto, J., Lee, C., Bhullar, B., & Walters, R. M. (2016). Development of infant and toddler sleep patterns: real‐world data from a mobile application. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(5), 508-516.


Mindell, J. A., Sadeh, A., Wiegand, B., How, T. H., & Goh, D. Y. (2010). Cross-cultural differences in infant and toddler sleep. Sleep Medicine, 11(3), 274-280.


Ockwell-Smith, S. (2016). Toddlers all Sleep Through the Night – Don’t They?


Paruthi S, Brooks LJ, D’Ambrosio C, Hall WA, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM, Malow BA, Maski K, Nichols C, Quan SF, Rosen CL, Troester MM, Wise MS. (2016). Recommended amount of sleep for pediatric populations: a consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine;12(6):785–786.)


Paavonen, E. J., Saarenpää-Heikkilä, O., Morales-Munoz, I., Virta, M., Häkälä, N., Pölkki, P., … & Karlsson, L. (2020). Normal sleep development in infants: findings from two large birth cohorts. Sleep Medicine, 69, 145-154


Roenneberg, T., Wirz-Justice, A., & Merrow, M. (2003). Life between clocks: daily temporal patterns of human chronotypes. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18(1), 80-90.


Scher, A. (1991). A longitudinal study of night waking in the first year. Child: care, health and development, 17(5), 295-302.




Schlagintweit, H. E., Bailey, K., & Rosen, N. O. (2016). A new baby in the bedroom: frequency and severity of postpartum sexual concerns and their associations with relationship satisfaction in new parent couples. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(10), 1455-1465.


Responsive (cue-based) parenting & gentle approaches to infant sleep:


Australian Association for Infant Mental Health (2016) Position Statement on Responding to baby’s cues.


Hookway, L. (2017). Gently does it: Evidence-based gentle sleep coaching in health visiting. Journal of Health Visiting, 5(6), 280-284.


Murray L, Andrews L (2000). The Social Baby: Understanding Babies’ Communication from Birth. Richmond: CP Publishing.


Paul, I. M., Savage, J. S., Anzman-Frasca, S., Marini, M. E., Mindell, J. A., & Birch, L. L. (2016). INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention and infant sleep. Pediatrics, 138(1), e20160762.


Szalavitz M and Perry BD (2010). Born for love: Why empathy is essential & endangered. William Morrow, New York.


Whittingham, K., & Douglas, P. (2014). Optimizing parent–infant sleep from birth to 6 months: A new paradigm. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35(6), 614-623.


Screen Exposure:


Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J. (2016). Bedtime mobile phone use and sleep in adults. Social Science & Medicine, 148, 93-101.


Madigan, S., Browne, D., Racine, N., Mori, C., & Tough, S. (2019). Association Between Screen Time and Children’s Performance on a Developmental Screening Test. AMA Pediatrics, 173(3), 244–250.


Simonato, I., Janosz, M., Archambault, I., & Pagani, L. S. (2018). Prospective associations between toddler televiewing and subsequent lifestyle habits in adolescence. Preventive Medicine, 110, 24-30.


Wolf, C., Wolf, S., Weiss, M., & Nino, G. (2018). Children’s environmental health in the digital era: understanding early screen exposure as a preventable risk factor for obesity and sleep disorders. Children, 5(2), 31.


Zivan, M., Bar, S., Jing, X., Hutton, J., Farah, R., & Horowitz-Kraus, T. (2019). Screen-exposure and altered brain activation related to attention in preschool children: An EEG study. Trends in Neuroscience & Education, 17, 100117.


Secure Attachment:


Ebbeck, M., Phoon, D. M. Y., Tan-Chong, E. C. K., Tan, M. A. B., & Goh, M. L. M. (2015). A research study on secure attachment using the primary caregiving approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(3), 233-240.


Kim, B. R., Stifter, C. A., Philbrook, L. E., & Teti, D. M. (2014). Infant emotion regulation: Relations to bedtime emotional availability, attachment security, and temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 37(4), 480-490.


Schore, A. N. (2001). Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal: Official Publication of The World Association for Infant Mental Health, 22(1‐2), 7-66.


Sleep training methods which use behaviour modification/ cry-it-out/ timed comforting:


Australian Association for Infant Mental Health Inc. (2013). Position Statement on Controlled Crying.


Middlemiss W et al. (2011). Asynchrony of mother-infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity following extinction of infant crying responses induced during the transition to sleep. Early Human Development, 63:4, 227-232.


Seehagen S, Schneider S, Rudolph J, Ernst S, Zmyj N. (2015).  Stress impairs cognitive flexibility in infants. PNAS; 112: 12882-6.




Baggerly, C. A., Cuomo, R. E., French, C. B., Garland, C. F., Gorham, E. D., Grant, W. B., … & Pittaway, M. (2015). Sunlight and vitamin D: necessary for public health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 34(4), 359-365.


Bedrosian, T. A., & Nelson, R. J. (2013). Influence of the modern light environment on mood. Molecular Psychiatry, 18(7), 751-757.


Healthy WA (2020). Vitamin D.


Reichrath J. (2006). The challenge resulting from positive and negative effects of sunlight: how much solar UV exposure is appropriate to balance between risks of vitamin D deficiency and skin cancer?. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 92(1), 9–16.


Samanek, A. J., Croager, E. J., Gies, P., Milne, E., Prince, R., McMichael, A. J., … & Slevin, T. (2006). Estimates of beneficial and harmful sun exposure times during the year for major Australian population centres. Medical Journal of Australia, 184(7), 338-341.


Sinclair C. (2006). Risks and benefits of sun exposure: implications for public health practice based on the Australian experience. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 92(1), 173–178.


Treatment options for sleep disorders:


Parliament of Australia. Inquiry into Sleep Health Awareness in Australia (2019).


Williams III, W. P., McLin III, D. E., Dressman, M. A., & Neubauer, D. N. (2016). Comparative review of approved melatonin agonists for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep‐wake disorders. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 36(9), 1028-1041.


Underlying health issues which may impact sleep in infants:


La Leche League International. Cows Milk Protein Intolerance information (2020).


Mayo Clinic (2020). Infant development: Birth to 3 months.


Mayo Clinic (2018). Infant reflux.


The Royal Women’s Hospital (Melbourne) ‘Tongue-tie information for Families’ (2015)

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